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Geothermal Energy is heat (thermal) derived from the earth (geo). It is the thermal energy contained in the rock and fluid (that fills the fractures and pores within the rock) in the earth's crust. These resources can be classified as:
High temperature greater than 150C used only for electric power generation
Moderate temperature from 90C - 150C and Low temperature less than 90C.
Uses for low and moderate temperature resources can be divided into two categories: direct use and ground-source heat pumps.
Direct use: using the heat in the water directly without a heat pump or power plant for heating of buildings, industrial processes and greenhouses. Direct use projects generally use resource temperatures between 38C to 149C.
Ground-source heat pumps: using groundwater as a heat source in winter and a heat sink in summer. Using resource temperatures of 4C to 38C the heat pump is a device which moves heat from one place to another, transfers heat from the soil to the house in winter and from the house to the soil in summer. While temperatures above ground change a lot from day to day and season to season, temperatures in the upper 10 feet of the Earth's surface hold nearly constant. For most areas, this means that soil temperatures are usually warmer than the air in winter and cooler than the air in summer. Geothermal heat pumps use the Earth's constant temperatures to heat and cool buildings. They transfer heat from the ground or water into buildings in winter and reverse the process in the summer.
Geothermal heat pumps are the most energy efficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective systems for temperature control.

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